American illnesses of the past were characterized by infectious disease and malnutrition. In our society today, we have better sanitation and vaccines that help to prevent the contraction and spread of these diseases that were once a huge problem. However on the negative end, we have an increase in processed foods and an increase in consumption of foods that are high in fat and sugar, with little to no nutritional value. Our population is experiencing a decrease in physical activity, and an increase in behaviors such as smoking that negatively impact our health. As a result, chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are all increasing in prevalence rates. The largest portion of our healthcare expenditure is used to treat these diseases. Approximately 162 million Americans are living with at least one chronic disease which cost approximately $1.3 trillion annually to treat. These chronic diseases can generally be avoided and treated with adequate exercise and proper nutrition. These diseases can be prevented by assessing an individual’s risk for a certain chronic disease, and then taking the proper steps necessary to prevent it.